Warm shed, bitter gourd, spring pod cultivation techniques

Bitter gourd is also known as quail melon, melon, contains a variety of amino acids, peptides and other nutrients, its fruit extract - bitter gourd, with the name of plant insulin, long-term adherence to consumption has promote digestion, heat fire, regulate blood lipids, detoxification Sugar and other health effects are welcomed by consumers. The implementation of bitter gourd greenhouse cultivation techniques can not only adjust the supply, but also obtain higher yields. Now the main cultivation techniques are introduced as follows.

1, selected excellent species

Bitter gourd is hi, wet and heat-resistant, and it has strong resistance to stress and wide adaptability. During greenhouse cultivation, moderate and early maturing varieties with strong growth potential, moderate branching force, outstanding resistance characteristics, and high quality and high yield should be selected, such as long bitter gourd, summer abundance bitter gourd, green bitter gourd, and big white bitter gourd.

2, timely sowing

The bitter gourd needs about 100 days from sowing to picking. According to Wen Peng production conditions and local climate characteristics, as far as possible to ensure the off-season picking market. In northern China, bitter gourd plants are planted in greenhouse in early spring and the sowing date is from mid-February to early-March. Generally, the picking peak period can be delayed until mid-July.

3, cultivate strong seedlings

15-20 days before sowing preparation before sowing, deep plowing and tilling, combined with cultivating 3,000-4,000 kg per acre of cooked manure, with SF compound fertilizer 15 kg-20 kg. After drying in the fields for 7-10 days, seal the sheds for 5-7 days and fully sterilize the soil and temperature sheds through sunlight and high-temperature stuffy sheds. After the ground is leveled, reserve the open space on the east side of the temperature shed, build a loquat width of 1.1-1.3 meters, prepare the seedbed, and then ridicule along the north-south direction, 10 centimeters high and 90 centimeters wide, covering the mulch to ensure warming.

The seeds of the bitter gourd seeds are hard and hard, and must be soaked before sowing. Seed first soaked in warm water of 55°C for 20-30 minutes, rinse off the mucus on the surface of seed shell, then soak in warm water of 30°C for 6-8 hours, remove and put into 10% trisodium phosphate solution After soaking for 15-20 minutes, moisturize and germinate under conditions of 30°C-32°C. When most of the seed openings are white, you can sow. Generally, the amount per mu is 0.75 kg-1 kg.

Before the sowing seedlings are sowed, the bottom water is soaked. After the water is completely infiltrated, the germinated seeds are sowed at a density of 10 cm*10 cm evenly on a seedbed, covered with fine earth 1.5 cm to 2 cm, and then a small arch shed is used to maintain the shed. Temperature around 25 °C, 5-7 days can be Qimiao. When the seedlings grow to two leaves and one heart, they gradually remove the film on the shed and exhale the seedlings. When the plants grow to 4-5 true leaves, they are ready to plant. At seedling stage, do not water or water as little as possible to prevent seedlings from growing. When the seedlings were found to be light in color and weak in growth, the mixture of 1% urea and 2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate could be sprayed on the leaves to promote seedling rejuvenation.

4, timely transplanting

When the seedlings grow to 5-6 true leaves, they can be transplanted and colonized. When transplanting, the plants were planted by perforation with a spacing of 70 cm to 80 cm and a spacing of 30 cm to 35 cm on the membrane, and 2500-3000 strains were planted per acre. When taking seedlings, strive to complete the bandits and try to avoid injury. Depth of planting is suitable for flat surfaces of the cotyledons. After the planting, the ridge was filled with water, and the soil was pressed through the membrane. Finally, the greenhouse was closed and the temperature was raised.

5, field management

After pruning and planting, the pruning plants were started to release air. During the day, they maintained 20°C-25°C and 15°C-18°C at night. After the plants stretched, they were fixed on the crossbeams at the south and north ends of the greenhouse by wire along the ridges and ridges, and then the nylon cords were hung on the wire for climbing on shelves. The bitter gourd has strong branching power, and the side vines grow luxuriantly. If they are allowed to grow, not only the consumption of nutrients will hinder the normal growth and flowering of the main vines, but also the field will be covered with desolation and affect the ventilation and light transmission. Therefore, in the process of attracting vines, we should eliminate the old vines and thin side vines in time and remove the old leaves and yellow leaves in order to increase photosynthesis, concentrate the nutrient supply main vines, promote the coloration of fruits and improve the quality and yield.

The suitable temperature for the control of bitter gourd flowering temperature is about 25°C. The minimum temperature in the early morning should not be lower than 12°C. When the shelf temperature exceeds 25°C in the daytime, the film can be released and the night wind temperature can be maintained at about 15°C. On sunny days, open the haystack after 9am and set it aside after 4pm. When the outside temperature decreases, one layer of paper can be covered with straw or old film to keep it warm and reduce the time for exposing and expelling the air. In the event of rain and snow and cold weather, in addition to prolonging the cover time, it is necessary to remove the residual snow and grime on the shed film as soon as possible, or to take additional lighting measures and increase the number of artificial light-filling measures to increase the temperature of the shed and increase the temperature of the shed. Meet the normal growth needs of bitter gourd.

The fertilizer and water management is planted till the flowering stage, and the bitter gourd plants are small. The water requirement for the fertilizer is not large, and it will enter the flowering result period, and the amount of fertilizer needs to increase rapidly. Therefore, the fertilizer should be applied during bud setting and during harvesting. The topdressing should be carried out before the irrigation. Each mu of decomposed chicken manure 50 kg -75 kg, with humic acid compound fertilizer 20 kg -25 kg. When watering, it is advisable to use a small amount of ground water and avoid flooding. Usually, it should be done in the sunny afternoon. It should not be watered in cold and cold weather.

Artificial pollination is a cross-pollination crop of bitter gourd, in greenhouse cultivation environment, there are very few pollinators, artificial pollination can effectively improve the fruit setting rate, significantly improve the quality of melon strips. The pollination time is usually 7-9 am, and smearing female stigmas with 2,4-D at the same time can prevent the melons and reduce flowering.

Diseases and pests control bitter gourd has strong stress resistance, and is less affected by pests and diseases. If pests such as blight, anthracnose, spotted mite, aphid, whitefly, spotted fly, and fruit fly are found, they can make full use of the enclosed environment of the greenhouse and use a highly effective, low-toxicity, low-residue, pollution-free pesticide. Treat symptomatically. Can be fumigated with chlorothalonil smoke agent for 8-12 hours, or sprayed with 15% triadimefon WP 1500 times to prevent bacterial blight, anthrax, and spot disease; use fumigating smoke control agent or dichlorvos to control aphids, Whitefly; using dichlorvos smoke agent fumigation or spraying 0.2% avermectin EC 2000 times to control spotted fly and fruit fly.

6, picking in time

The bitter gourd was mainly eaten with tender guarana, but the picking was too early, the melon meat was not enriched, the content of the internal soluble matter was low, and the quality and yield were decreased; when the picking was too late, the melon became old and yellow, and the quality was reduced, and the commodity price and output benefit would be affected. Generally 10-15 days after flowering, the melons and fruit are fully grown, the top corolla is dry and detached, the stripes and nodules on the skin of the green melons are obviously enlarged, the melon strips are full and full, the skin color is green and bright, and the white skin melon is fruity From green to white green, picking can be done when the characteristics of the variety are fully developed. When picking, use fruit and scissors to cut the fruit handle lightly to avoid pulling and tearing and damage the fruits.

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