Grapevine Management Technology

Straw frame tree

With regard to the shape of the main vines on the racks, the shape of the fences can be roughly divided into two types: sectoral shaping and horizontal shaping. The most widely used in the production is the sector shaping.

(1) The multi-dominant ruler of the fence: There are many main vines directly from the ground, and there is no side vine on the main vine. The result is that the branches are regularly arranged on the main vine by a certain distance. The main vines are fan-shaped and arranged on the plane. This type of tree resembles the dry shape of the scaffolding, and is mainly trimmed with short shoots, leaving fresh shoots, with 3-6 main vines per plant, with a plant spacing of 1.5-2.0 meters. In recent years, planting distances have generally been encrypted and shrunk to 1.0-1.5 meters, reducing the number of main vines in order to facilitate early formation and entry into the high yield period.

(2) A plurality of regular fan-shaped holes in the fence: There is no difference between this tree and the multi-primary rule fan. The main difference is that the multi-dominant regular fan is a seedling that produces several main vines from the base part, and a single hole multi-strain regular fan is planted 2-3 strains in one hole, and each plant produces 1-2 from the base part. The main vine. This type of tree is used in areas with good water and fertilizer conditions. Generally, about 7500 trees need to be planted per hectare, and about 22500 kg can be obtained in the second year. After entering the high yield period, the number of sparse and sparse plants is determined based on the degree of stability of the tree.

(3) The multi-dominant natural fan shape of the fence: The difference with the multi-primary rule fan is that the main vines are arranged irregularly with side vines, and the main vines maintain a certain affiliation. The combination of long, medium, and short shoots is used, and winter pruning methods based on mid-to-short shoots are used. According to the strength of the branches, the length of the parent branches was determined, and there was no obvious result.

The advantage of this tree shape is that it is easy to shape, the pruning is more flexible, and the tree potential is easier to control. When used in the South, it is preferable to use a trunk multi-master natural fan shape. The disadvantage is that it is not easy to formulate a uniform winter pruning operation. Due to the different level of pruning technology, the differences between strains were caused, and even branches and naked trees or tree-like disorders were observed. The application of this tree in the north has been gradually reduced.

In order to prevent over-exposure of the trees, it is still not advisable to adopt a regular fan shape in the fences in the high-temperature and rainy areas in the south. In the use of natural fan-shaped, should pay attention to choose to stay in the weak branch short stay 2 buds to do renewed branches, as far as possible in the main vine on the direct result of the Zhizu group and compress the length of lateral vine, only retain the first-level side vines, so that the natural fan gradually Standardized.

(4) The shape of the fence is horizontal: Plants are separated from the ground by one main trunk, and several main vines are horizontally distributed on the 1-3 iron rails of the fence. Two main vines are distributed bidirectionally on one iron line. Single-layered arms are horizontally shaped. In the 1st and 2nd iron lines, two main vines are distributed bidirectionally, and 4 horizontal main vines are counted, which are called double-layered horizontal arms. In the 1-3 lanes of iron, three main vines are distributed in two directions, and the main vines in six levels are called horizontal multi-layered arms. Because the horizontal tree has a hard and thick trunk, it is not conducive to overwintering and overwhelming the winter. Therefore, this tree shape is more suitable for use in areas not buried in winter. The horizontal shape should be used to make the new shoots grow in balance and moderate, otherwise it is prone to leggy branches and excessive branches.


In China's northwest and north China, scaffolding has been used in history. The shelving is most suitable for the long shoots of the Eastern cultivars in the Eurasian grape species, and is also suitable for garden viticulture. Under the conditions of scaffolding cultivation, the dendrite grows horizontally and the plant's prosperity is controlled to a certain extent. As a result, the area increases, and the fruit setting rate and fruit quality also increase significantly.

Sheds are made of pillars and wire, and grape vines grow horizontally on the shed. The shelf length is usually more than 6 meters long for the scaffolding and 6 meters for the small scaffolding. Shelving has a high yield and the tree has a long life. In the case of garden planting, yard buildings and stumps can also be used as scaffolds. The disadvantage of scaffolding is that it is more labor-intensive and less convenient to manage in the cold-proof area where it is buried.

(1) Small Shed Sheds The small shelving is characterized by a small shelf, a front shelf height of 0.8 meters, and a rear shelf height of 1.5 meters. Plastic can be used as a single stem, but it can also use multiple stems and multiple main vines. The main vine spreads on the side of the shelf and spreads across the entire surface of the rack. After the plastic is finished, it can be pruned with medium and short tips.

In recent years, Duron Dry Shaping has also been widely used on small scaffolds. Only one main vine was allowed to stand on a single dry rotator. The result was that the mother twigs were uniformly distributed on the sides of the main vines in the form of dragon claws, and were mainly pruned with short shoots or short shoots. The operation was simple, especially in the conditions of dense planting. Plasticity shows the characteristics of easy mastery and rapid increase in early production.

The method of dry-moulding of Dulong is: After the first year of planting seedlings, leave 4-5 buds short during the winter pruning, and in the second year of growth, focus on cultivating a robust new shoot to extend forward, while other branches are left with 2-4 leaves. In the second year, he continued to choose a strong new shoot to extend forward, and the rest still took the heart to promote its formation. When the main mandarin reaches 1.8-2.0 meters, a distinct thick and dry dragon is formed. In the following years, in addition to the dragon stem extension and long shoot trimming, a dragon claw is distributed every 20 centimeters on both sides of the dragon stem (result Female branches), pruning short tips or poles. In the north China and northwestern regions where the cold-proof zone is buried, it is necessary to pay attention to make the dragon dry from the ground and extend it at an angle of about 20 degrees with the ground so as to prevent the undergrowth from being buried under the cold. When the trunk was broken.

(2) Shelving Shelvings are tall, and the heights of the shelving are the same or slightly tilted. This type of shelving is used when planting plants in gardens and sightseeing vineyards and on both sides of roads. In the scaffolding cultivation, there are mainly three trunking methods: no trunk and multiple vines, trunk and multiple vines, and “dragon trunk”. Three to five main vines are sent directly from the ground, stretched along the front frame, and then the main vines branch on the side of the vines and the resulting mother branches. 2 There are many vines in the trunk. A large trunk is cultivated, and the side vines are divided when approaching the plane, and the secondary vines and the resulting mother branches are reared on the side vines, and the branches are fan-shaped across the plane. This method takes a long time to reshape, and it is not easy to fall and cold. It is mainly used in cold-proof areas where no soil is buried. 3 Dragon dry shaping. Long dry shaping As mentioned above, the trunk of a plant is like a dragon. When it is grown in a large scaffolding, it can be used as a dry dragon, or it can be dried by many dragons. That is to say, several trunks (dragon stems) are sent out from the ground, and the stems are dried on the roof. Every 20-30 centimeters is equipped with a result of the mother to form a "dragon claw." This kind of shaping method is distributed evenly on the surface of the vines, and is easy to trim. When the cold is removed, the upper twigs are bundled together, and then put into the lower ditch to prevent the cold.

Due to the long time required for scaffolding and the relatively slow production increase in previous years after planting each other, in order to rapidly improve the planting efficiency, the current production methods mostly use the improved plastic surgery method of “shelf fence”. This method was used in the first and second year of the results to use the trellis reshaping to promote its early results in the vertical part of the scaffold, and to extend the branches to the horizontal frame in the third year and put the extensions in a timely manner. frame. In this way, it takes advantage of the early results and quick results of the trellis. At the same time, it uses the horizontal growth of the trellis and eases the characteristics of vegetative growth, effectively alleviating shoot growth and increasing the area of ​​results. This method is most suitable for table grape varieties, and is best applied to arched scaffolding.

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