Maqinzi cultivation technology

Strychnos nucifera is a dry mature seed of Strychnos nux-vomica l., also known as hibiscus. With Tongluozhitong, Sanjie swelling function. Native to India, Vietnam, Myanmar, Sri Lanka and other countries. China's Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan and other provinces and autonomous regions have introduced cultivation. (A) Morphological characteristics Evergreen trees, plants 10-13 meters high. Bark gray, lenticels, young branches green blue, axillary buds on both sides develop into relatively symmetric shoots, the top buds develop into metamorphic rough thorns, smooth; single leaves opposite, leaves entire, broadly ovate, smooth on both sides Hairless; cymes terminal; berry spherical, smooth surface, green when young, orange or brown-red when ripe; seeds 3-5, button-like, disc-shaped, surface grayish yellow, densely covered with silver hair, one side Central recessed. Flowering from March to May, fruit ripening from May to September. (B) growth habits like high temperature, fear of frost. The average monthly temperature suitable for growth is 20-28°C. When the extreme minimum temperature is 2-3°C in the short term, the shoots will freeze and dry. Seed germination temperature requirements are higher, the temperature at 23-25 ​​°C, 15-20 days after sowing, began to sprout, if less than 23 °C, it will be postponed until 25-30 days before germination. Drought-resistant, bogey water, annual rainfall of about 1700 mm, normal growth. Strong positive species require 60% canopy closure at the seedling stage. Mature trees grow under too shady conditions, and flowering is late with few results. Strict requirements on the soil, in the well-drained, loose texture of sandy loam and thin soil can grow. (III) Cultivation Techniques 1. Land selection and site preparation should be selected from riverside alluvial soils, yellow-red loamy soils in hilly areas, and calcareous loams or slightly acidic clay loams. Digging holes for 1–2 months prior to planting shall be 50 cm x 50 cm x 40 cm. After weathering, 10-15 kg of soil-fertilizer was applied to each hole, and 0.25 kg of superphosphate was mixed with the topsoil to fill the hole. 2. The propagation method uses seeds and buds to reproduce. (1) Seed propagation Seeds soaked in water for 2 days before sowing, removed and placed in a wet cloth bag, kept moist, cool place, 4-5 days when the radicle exposed white bud, you can remove the seeds, or put the seeds in a clean River bed sand germination, to sowing when sowed in the soil, the survival rate is high. If the amount of seeds is small, it can also be used to germinate the pots. The pelvic floor is covered with 10 centimeters of fine sand, put a layer of seeds on it, then covers 2 centimeters thick wet sand, and then cover it with a tile pot, and then sowing it into the soil after germination. . It usually takes place in March-April after the temperature rises. On the whole plant, 10-15 cm x 40 cm rows were planted on-demand, 1 seed per hole was placed, and the radicles were downward, covering 1.5-2 cm of loose fire or fine river sand cover. 10 days is the emergence of leaves. In order to nurture strong seedlings and improve the survival rate of afforestation, nutrient devices such as plastic bags, small bamboo baskets, and circular pots can be used to hold nutritious soil. When the seed extends out of the cotyledon, the seedlings are transplanted to the nutrition bag in rainy or sunny afternoons, and 1 bag per bag, or seeds of 1 to 2 grains per nutrient device are placed and placed in a damp place. Seedlings emerged 10-20 days after sowing in summer and emerged about 40 days after sowing in winter. After 1 year of cultivation in the nursery, when the height of the seedlings is more than 60 cm, nursery can be planted. (2) Selection of bud grafting rootstocks and buds: Select one-year-old seedlings with developed root systems and strong resistance. Selecting the high-yielding mother plant results in shoots that are full of buds that have not germinated. The sprouting time is generally selected in the high temperature and rainy season, and the bark is easily peeled off. Concrete bud connection method: 10 cm away from the ground, select the smooth side and use a bud grafter to cut the "duck tongue" interface, cut slightly smaller buds than the interface, peel off the xylem, and then peel off the skin of the rootstock interface In the Ministry, the buds should be quickly affixed and tightly tied with a plastic film strip of about 1.5 cm wide from the bottom to the top. After 20-30 days after budding, wait until it survives. Untie the ligatures. About 7 days after the liberation, 5 cm above the bud, the incision will be cut. The incision will be skewed and the lower part will be on the back of the bud to prevent the rain from flowing to the bud. Wax seal the incision. After sprouting, buds that germinate on the rootstock should often be removed. When young shoots are taken to sprout, in order to prevent insect infestation, the plastic film bag that is ventilated with a small hole is used to cover the insect. If adult buckwheat plants are used as rootstocks for budding, they should be sawed flat at a distance of 1 meter from the ground. 3. Field management (l) Light-colored buds appear when seedlings emerge from the soil. Seed coats usually stay for 8-10 days until they emerge, and then the cotyledons appear. If the seeding is too shallow, the young stems are often unearthed on the surface of the belt. According to the sun, the seed coat shrinks and the cotyledons do not fall off easily and die. Therefore, the drought should be promptly sprayed after sowing, soil surface must be kept moist, not compacted, in order to facilitate the emergence of seeds, or seedling emergence is not neat, or suffocating in the soil. (2) Drenched water, make up the drought after the colonization of the planting seedlings to help nursery stocks quickly restore their vigor, found that the lack of seedlings must be filled in time. (3) intercropping horse money growth period of up to several decades, early crown small, good ventilation and light down the forest, appropriate intercropping cassava, galangal and other dry food or medicinal materials, to create a certain temperature and humidity for the plant, suitable for early growth environment of. (4) Fertilization During the March-April period, the old leaves suddenly fell off within a few days. Before the young leaves, shoots and flower buds were extracted, 2-3 kilograms of dilute urine was applied to each young tree. 10-15 kilograms, along the outer edge of the canopy. During the August-September result period, 2.5-5 grams of ammonium sulfate or superphosphate or burnt earth was applied per plant. (5) Pruning combined with plastic surgery to trim, cut off too dense lateral branches, weak branches and lateral branches of the trunk. 4. Disease and Insect Pest Control (1) Leaf spot disease This disease damages the leaves. Control methods: spray with 1:1:100 Bordeaux mixture; or use 70% thiophanate-methyl 1000-fold solution once every 10 days for 2-3 consecutive times. (2) larvae and hawkmoths use larvae to injure young leaves and the flowering period is more serious. Control methods: In the young stage, dilute 800-1000 times with 90% trichlorfon and spray five times every 7-10 days for 2-3 consecutive times. (3) The weevil adult eats young leaves and leaves the leaves nicked. Control methods: (1) use artificial adult death, artificial capture; (2) kill with 50% killer pine emulsion 1000-1500 times liquid. (4) The head of the scorpion was cut off at the seedling stage of the bighead cockroach. Control methods: use rice bran, sugar, trichlorfon into the bait trap. (4) Flowering and harvesting after 8 years of harvesting and processing, and the results will flourish after 10 years. In the late winter and early spring, harvesting occurs when the outer surface of the fruit turns orange-red. After removing the fruit, piling it for a few days until the flesh has become soft and rotten. Wash the pulp and remove the seeds and dry it. Ma Ying-tzu is highly toxic and should be carefully kept. (V) Seed-holding techniques Late winter and early spring, plants without pests and diseases, picked orange-red ripe fruit, and piled for 2-3 days. When the flesh becomes soft, add a little fine sand, remove the flesh, wash the seeds dry, dry sand Mix with seeds and store in bottles or plastic bags. Sowing in the high temperature period of the following year.