How to solve the fault of the electrical system

Faults in tractor electrical systems, whether they occur on the road or electrical equipment, are generally caused by short-circuit or open circuit causes. The phenomena and diagnostic methods are as follows.

1. Short circuit fault

(1) Short-circuit fault phenomenon and cause When a partial short-circuit occurs, the load fails due to a short circuit. The resistance of this load line is small, and a large short-circuit current is generated, resulting in overload of the power supply, insulation of the wire, and severe burn. Fire. The phenomenon of failure is as follows: The two wires of the power “+” and “-” poles are directly connected; the circuit is directly connected without a load; the insulated wires are grounded. Causes of failure include: wire insulation damage, and contact with each other to cause a short circuit; switch, junction box, lamp holder and other external wiring screws loose, resulting in collision with the wire ends; wiring accidentally, so that the two heads touch; lead wire touch metal Part and so on.

(2) Diagnosis of short-circuit faults

1 Direct observation method. When tractor electrical equipment fails, smoke, sparks, burnt odors, and hot irons can sometimes appear. These phenomena can be felt by the human body's eyes, nose, ears and other senses, which can directly determine the fault location and causes of electrical equipment.

2 Observe the ammeter on the tractor. Where electricity is passed through the ammeter, the current value indicated by the ammeter can be used as a judgment basis. If you turn on the electrical equipment, the ammeter will quickly swing from “0” to full scale, indicating that there is a short circuit in the circuit.

3 circuit test method. Disconnect the circuit that is suspected of having a short-circuit fault to determine if the open circuit is short-circuited. For example, if there is a short circuit somewhere in the circuit, the fuse in the circuit will be blown. At this time, you can use a lamp as the test lamp. The two ends of the test lamp are connected across the ends of the disconnected fuse. On the terminal, the test lamp should be on; then the circuit with suspected ground fault should be disconnected. If the pilot lamp is off, it indicates that the circuit is short circuit; otherwise, the circuit is disconnected for other related circuits.

4 multimeter test method. Measure the resistance of the coil winding in the electrical component and determine if there is a short circuit in the winding. Multimeter detection is a method of detecting circuits or components more accurately and quickly.

2. Broken circuit

(1) The phenomenon and reason of the broken circuit fault If one end of the fire wire is at the front and one end of the grounding wire is at the rear, the line break still has electricity before and can form a loop with the ground of the body; and after the point, there is no electricity, so the power supply When a point in the circuit of the load is interrupted, the current does not pass, causing the light to turn off and the motor to stop. The cause of the fault is broken wires; loose wire connection sections; poor contact.

(2) Diagnosis of open circuit faults

1 Observe the ammeter on the tractor. When the operating voltage is fixed, after the power-on device is turned on, the current meter indicates “0” or the indicated discharge current value is less than the positive and the constant value, which indicates that the circuit of the power-supply device is disconnected or the wire is bad.

2 Short-circuit test method. Use a screwdriver or wire to short-circuit a section of circuit or an appliance and look at the response of the meter or appliance to determine the location of the fault. Normally, one end of one lead wire is connected to the live wire of the electric device, and the other end is contacted with each point. Then, the fault location is determined according to the reaction of the electric device.

3 Iron test method. Connect one end of a wire to the live wire of the electricity device and the other end to the fire test of the machine. Test fire in sequence to find out where the disconnection is. At the same time, it is also possible to determine the location of the disconnection by testing fire or no fire on other lines.

4 multimeter test method. Use a multimeter to replace the test fire wire to measure the DC voltage at each point. If the voltage is positive or negative, the circuit between the test point and the power supply is clear; if the voltage is 0, the circuit between the test point and the ground is a broken circuit. The same goal can also be achieved. In addition, through the multimeter to test the parameters of the circuit or components, and compared with the parameters of the normal state of the technology to determine the location of the fault.

5 test light method. It is to use a tractor light bulb as a test light to check if there is any circuit failure in the circuit. One end of the test light can be connected to the alternator's "armature" post and the other end is grounded. If the light is off, there is an open circuit fault between the battery ground terminal and the alternator "armature" connection column; if the light is on, this section of the circuit is good.

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