Construction of Winter Jujube and Fertilizer and Water Management

Dongzao is a rare and precious fresh food species in jujube resources in China. The jujube is resistant to storage and easy to keep fresh. The average fruit weight is about 40 grams and the maximum fruit weight is 81 grams. The use of dense planting techniques for winter jujube can achieve the purpose of establishing a garden in 1 year, forming in 2 years, fruiting in 3 years, and yielding in 4 years. Therefore, planting winter jujube is one of the good projects to promote the structural adjustment of agricultural industry and effectively increase the income of farmers. First, the construction of garden (a) garden and species selection of winter jujube strong adaptability, strict requirements on the soil, regardless of acidic soil, alkaline soil, sandy soil or clay soil, can normally grow, but fertile sandy loam is the best, Avoid serious internal plots. The varieties must have the characteristics of strong early growth and small tree development. At the crown transition, the tree is controlled with heavy or girdling energy and stable results can be maintained. (2) Pre-plant preparation and planting of leaves After the autumn planting before thawing and thawing to the spring planting period during germination, the survival rate is high, and the bud planting and planting survival rate is the highest. The key is to fill enough water to maintain good sensation. The spacing is 3m 4m, 2m 3m or 2m 4m, north and south. One year before planting, level the garden and dig planting pits that are not less than 60 cm long, wide and deep. Mix topsoil and manure and backfill. Each pit with 5 ~ 10 kg of manure, superphosphate 0.25 kg, backfilled, irrigation and sinking. Or in the autumn of the previous year, planting trenches with a depth of 1 meter and a width of 1 meter were dug. Then use 5000 kg of manure per acre and 150 kg of special compound fertilizer for fruit trees, mix back with the soil and fill the ditch. 2 to 3 years old grafted seedlings with nursery culture were used. The rough (ground diameter) reached 1.5 cm or more, and the seedling height was 1.2 to 1.5 meters. No pests and diseases were found. The lateral roots were well developed and the best selection was for virus-free seedlings. Watering the nursery within 7 days before seedling raising, so that the seedlings suck enough water to raise seedlings and cause less root damage. Doing with the seedlings, with the transport, with the planting. When the transportation distance is far away, moisturizing measures should be applied to the seedlings, and no night seedlings should be planted as far as possible. Before planting, soak the roots with a 5010E-6 ABT rooting powder (No. 1) for 1 to 15 hours, or soak in clean water for 24 hours. Before planting, dig 40 cm 40 cm small planting holes. When planting, put the seedlings into the hole, straighten it up and down, fill the topsoil first, fill the subsoil afterwards, and when the soil is half filled, gently raise the seedlings to make the roots level with the ground or slightly lower than the ground. After planting practical, and immediately drenched water. Covering the tree plate with a plastic film covering an area of ​​not less than 1 square meter, increasing the moisture retention capacity, increasing the temperature of the tree plate, and promoting the rooting of the seedlings. (3) Post-planting management After planting, pay attention to cultivating and weeding, drought protection, flood prevention, pest control, and appropriate fertilizer application. The first year is the period of seedling survival, and the key is the supply of water. Therefore, while mulching and loose soil are used to raise the ground temperature, it is mainly based on the soil temperature and rainfall conditions to ensure watering for 3 to 5 times a year. The topdressing is carried out after easing seedlings and after the start of the rainy season. Dig 3 to 4 shallow holes around the trunk 20 cm away from the stem, 5 to 8 cm in depth, and apply 15 to 20 grams of urea or compound fertilizer per hole. After the application of water points. The fertilizer can also be applied once every 7-10 days, spraying 0.3%-0.4% urea and 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2 or 3 times. Second, soil and fertilizer water management can be based on the actual situation, respectively, to adopt clean cultivation, orchard grass and other cultivation systems, do weeding, loose soil and other work. From the second year, we will strengthen the management of fertilizer and water. Basal fertilizer should use high-quality manure, planting 5 to 10 kg, increasing year by year. The top-dressing fertilizer should be dominated by nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorus and potash fertilizers should be used in the later period. Fertilizer amount per plant per time: urea 0.05 ~ 0.5 kg, 0.05 ~ 0.3 kg of diammonium phosphate, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (or potassium sulfate) 0.05 ~ 0.3 kg, increasing year by year. Depth of fertilization: base fertilizer 20 to 40 cm, top dressing 10 to 20 cm. In mid-April, each plant applies 0.5-1.0 kg of urea, or 0.3-0.7 kg of diammonium phosphate; 0.5-1.0 kg of urea is applied in early June; 15-25 kg of excrement is applied in early August, and diammonium phosphate 0.3 is added. ~ 0.5 kg, potassium sulfate 0.4 ~ 0.7 kg. From May to July, a 0.3% to 0.4% urea solution and photosynthetic micronutrient were sprayed every 15 days; from August to September, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate was sprayed 3 to 4 times; immediately after the harvest, 0.4% to 0.5% was sprayed. Urea. After harvesting each year, 50 to 100 kg of organic fertilizer, 0.5 to 1.0 kg of diammonium phosphate, 0.3 to 0.6 kg of potassium sulfate, and 0.2 to 0.3 kg of multiple microelement fertilizer are applied to each strain. The sprouting water, pre-flower water, and young fruit bulk water were poured throughout the year. When the flower is dry, the canopy sprays water.

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