Conservation Tillage: New Dryland Farming Technology

First, what is conservation tillage?

Conservation tillage is a new type of tillage technology that is comparable to traditional tillage. It is defined as: Covering the surface with a large amount of straw residues, reducing tillage to ensure that the seeds germinate, and a farming technique that uses pesticides to control weeds and pests. According to the characteristics of conservation tillage, it is called conservation tillage because it is good for water and soil conservation. The basic points for conservation tillage can also be summarized in four sentences: straw mulching, no-tillage sowing, pine-turning, chemical weeding.

Second, the scope of adaptation of conservation tillage

Suitable rainfall range: Annual rainfall 250-800mm.

Appropriate temperature range: For the cultivation of thermophilic crops such as corn, the soil temperature for conservation tillage in spring is 1°C~2°C lower than that of plowing without cover, which may have a greater impact on emergence. The recommended temperature is lower than the average annual temperature. At 7°C, promotion should be prudent. For cold-tolerant crops such as spring wheat, there is no limit to the temperature.

Suitable soil types: There are no restrictions, but caution should be exercised in soils with poor viscous drainage performance.

III. Problems to be Noted in the Promotion of Conservation Tillage

1. The quality of sowing, due to uneven ground surface, unequal distribution of coverings and other reasons, there may be different seeding depth, uneven seed distribution, and even lack of seedlings and ridges. Attention must be paid to improving planter performance and improving surface conditions.

2. Weed control problems, ploughing and burial of weeds, conservation tillage has relatively lost a means to control weeds, followed by straw cover, liquid medicine is not easy to spray directly on the weeds, to kill grass The effect will have a certain effect.

3. Identify the main contradictions and formulate processes according to local conditions, such as cool and windy sand areas. Conservation tillage focuses on controlling dust storms and farmland desertification. Reducing surface damage is the main contradiction, and rotary farming and other operating methods cannot be used.

Fourth, the effectiveness of conservation tillage

According to systematic experiments in Shanxi Province, such as the China Agricultural University, conservation tillage has three benefits compared to traditional tillage.

1. Social Benefits: Reduce runoff (water loss) 60%, water erosion (soil loss) about 80%; Reduce wind erosion (grass yield), suppress dust storms; Do not burn straw, reduce air pollution.

2. Eco-efficiency: Increase the water storage capacity during leisure period by 14 to 15%, increase water use efficiency by 15 to 17%, save water resources, increase soil fertility, increase soil organic matter by 0.03%, increase available nitrogen, increase available potassium, and improve soil structure. Soil aggregate structure and capillary porosity (aqueous pores) increase.

3. Economic benefits: Increase the output of wheat and corn by 15 to 17%; Reduce the operation procedures, reduce the operating cost by 10 to 15%; Increase the income of farmers by 20 to 30%.

V. Why to promote conservation tillage

In order to increase drought-resistance, increase output, save income, protect the ecological environment, and realize sustainable development in the arid regions, it is necessary to vigorously promote mechanized conservation tillage techniques.

6. What are the contents of conservation tillage?

Conservation tillage mainly includes four technical contents: The first is to reform the traditional farming methods of plowing ploughing soil, and to implement no-tillage or less tillage. No-till farming is nothing more than sowing. Less tillage includes deep-sown and topsoil cultivation. Deep-separation means loosening of deep soil, basically not damaging soil structure and ground vegetation, which can increase natural rainfall infiltration rate and increase soil moisture content; Second, it will be more than 30% of crop stalks and residues. Covering the earth's surface, while fertilizing fertility, covering the soil with straw, solidifying the soil with roots, protecting the soil, reducing wind erosion, water erosion, and water evaporation, improving the natural rainfall utilization rate; Third, using no-tillage sowing, there is residue Cover the surface of the ground to realize the ditching, sowing, fertilizing, spraying, and covering the earth to suppress the double operation, simplify the process, reduce the number of machinery into the ground, reduce the cost; Fourth, change the tillage control weeds to control the weeds by spraying herbicides or mechanical topsoil .

What is No-till?

No-tillage is to completely abolish the plough plough and do not perform other soil operations. Abroad is called no-till. At present, the U.S. has basically cancelled the plowing operation of plowing ploughs. Australia has also completely canceled plowing ploughing. There are only three kinds of agricultural machinery used on the farms that implement the no-tillage method, namely, seeders, spray plant protection machines, and combine harvesters. This no-tillage method is the highest form of conservation tillage.

What is less farming?

Less plowing is based on the elimination of ploughing, and the maintenance of a small amount of soil in order to ensure the sowing and loosening of the soil, weeding and other agricultural operations (referred to as less tillage abroad), the main point is to reduce the number of times and intensity of cultivation. This method of lesser tillage is a form of transitional conservation tillage converted from conventional tillage to no-till. Less plowing mainly includes deep plowing, shallow loosening, shallow rotation, shallow plowing, etc.

Nine, what is deep?

Deep loosening, that is, the use of all kinds of special machinery to loosen deep soil, break the bottom of the plough, increase the circulation of gas and moisture in the soil, increase the natural rainfall infiltration rate, and increase the soil moisture content. The requirement for deep looseness is to minimize the movement of the upper and lower layers of the soil and reduce the damage to the ground vegetation. The depth of deep looseness does not need to be too deep, as long as the depth is greater than the thickness of the plough layer, and the bottom layer of the plough can be broken. Excessive depth is actually a waste. In addition, Satsuki does not have to be carried out every year. It is advocated that the first year of conservation tillage is carried out generally and deep, and since the plowing is no longer carried out and new plough bases are not formed, it is not necessary to deepen each year. With regard to the number of years of deep relaxation, the statement made once every 3 to 5 years is vague. It does not explain the principle of separation and how to determine the number of years. According to the introduction of foreign data and domestic practice research, the number of years of deep loosening should be determined mainly by the number of mechanical operations in the field and the degree of soil compaction. There are many operations, and equipment equipment will significantly compact the soil, causing the soil to be dense and real-time. For 1.4-1.5g/cm, ), it can be deep or loose, and then it depends on the situation. Deep relaxation and deep relaxation are just as wasteful.

X. What is shallow loose?

Shallow, refers to the loosening work in the cultivating layer, the depth of loose soil does not exceed the thickness of the plough layer. The function of shallow looseness is to remove weeds in addition to loosely cultivating layers of soil (cutting grass roots with a horizontal wing spatula of a shallow loosening machine), which is the main form of mechanical weeding. Some chiseling machines can also be equipped with single- or double-level horizontal blades, and the weeding effect is also good.

Eleventh, what is shallow spin, shallow?

Shallow swirling, shallow boring, cultivating tillage before top sowing, mainly for smashing soil, breaking hoe and weeding, the point is shallow, topsoil operation, tillage depth should not exceed 5cm. Deep overturning, especially deep rotation, is not conducive to maintaining the stability of the soil layer, easily killing earthworms, destroying the natural resilience of the soil, and also reducing the coverage of the earth's surface and affecting the protective effect of conservation tillage. It can be said that pre-planting operations such as shallow rotation and shallow flooding have a strong sense of traditional farming. This is a last resort for the smooth operation of conventional planters. With the continuous emergence of new and better no-tillage planters with good performance, Local farming of topsoil such as spin and hoe can be gradually reduced.

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